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緊張をほぐす | ひろみのみ

ひろみのみ

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緊張をほぐす

   

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日経BPムック「実践仕事ができる人の話し方」によると、自分の話しかたや説得力について、問題があると思う原因の1番は、
「人前で緊張してしまう」
というものでした。

今回は、この「緊張」をテーマとして扱っていきます。

緊張のメカニズム

まず、緊張のメカニズムを知ることから、はじめましょう。
 
「緊張する」とは、どのような状態でしょう?
  

  • 呼吸、脈拍が速くなる
  • 顔がほてる
  • 喉がかわく
  • 体が硬直する
  • 口がまわりにくくなる
  • 頭が真っ白になる

  
緊張すると、このようにさまざまな身体症状が発生します。

それでは、なぜ、私たちは緊張するのでしょうか?

医学的に言うと緊張は、アドレナリンというホルモンが分泌している状態のことです。

脳へ新鮮な酸素を供給するために、心臓興奮、血圧上昇、気管支拡張が起こり呼吸が多くなります。

また、エネルギーを必要度の高い組織器官に供給するため、消火活動を停止し、唾液の流れを止め、消化エネルギーを節約をしようとします。そのため、喉の渇き、胃痙攣などの症状が出てきます。

さらに、血管収縮により、手が冷たくなるなどの症状が出ます。

これは、私たちが持っている防衛反応によるもので、すばやく行動できるように、そして、負傷した際に出血量を減少させるためにこのような反応が起こるのです。

これが緊張のメカニズムです。

「緊張する」とは、実は、戦闘態勢に入った状態であるともいえます。

つまり、「緊張」は、私たちが生き残っていくために、必要な能力なのです。

だから…

  • 友人の結婚式のスピーチをする
  • プレゼンで大勢の人前で話をする
  • 怖い上司と話しをする

こういった緊急事態に対して、私たちの体が反応してしまうのは、とても自然なことなのです。

「緊張」との付き合い方

「緊張してしまう。」というと、あまり良くないことのように思えますが、適度な緊張は私たちにとって、必要なものです。

仕事に集中する、スポーツをする。

そんな時に、脳や体がリラックスしすぎていたら…
良い成果をあげることはできませんよね。

適度な緊張感は、私たちがパフォーマンスをあげるために、大切なものなのです。

とはいっても、過度に緊張してしまうと、頭が真っ白になってしまったり、体が強張ってしまったりと、あまり嬉しくない状況になってしまいます。

そんなとき、どうすればよいのか?

緊張しているとき。私たちが、ついつい、やってしまいがちなことがあります。

それは、「緊張しちゃいけない。」と自分に言い聞かせることです。

ところが…
これは、逆に緊張を強化してしまうことが多いようです。

「緊張しちゃいけない…いけない…」と、繰り返すと不思議なことに、どんどん緊張していきます。

こんなときは、「今、私は緊張しているんだ。」と、現状を受け入れてみましょう。

実際に
「今、私はすごくあがっています。」
というように、口に出してしまうのも良い方法です。
#これは私も実際に使っている方法です。(^-^)

さらに、緊張をほぐす方法

緊張をほぐす、具体的な方法をいくつか調べてみました。

オーソドックスで簡単にできそうなのは…

(1)深呼吸をする

緊張の症状の中で、唯一、自分でコントロールできるのが呼吸です。
深呼吸をして呼吸を落ち着かせることで、副交感神経が優位になりリラックスできます。

(2)体を動かす

体を動かすし、筋肉の力を抜くことで頭の緊張も緩和されます。
  
ちょっと変ったところでは…

(3)丹田(たんでん)に力を入れる

丹田(おへその少し下にある腹筋に力をいれたら一番硬くなる付近)に、手を当てて、意識してグッと力を入れてみると「腹が据わる」状態になり呼吸も落ち着いてくるのだそうです。

緊張とうまくつきあうために…
上記以外にも、自分にあった方法を探しておくと便利かもしれません。
  

実践!!

次回までに次のことを実践してみましょう!!

  1. 自分がどんな時に緊張するのか、そして、その時にどんな状態になるのかを観察してみましょう。もし、余裕があれば、緊張をほぐすやりかたも探してみましょう。

私が緊張するとき。

どうも、「うまくやろう」という意識が働くと緊張するようです。

手足に力が入り、体が強張ってきます。

そして、胃のあたりが「ず~~~ん」と重くなるような感覚がしてきます。
これが加速すると、手足の震えがでてきます。

若い頃、友人の結婚式のスピーチを頼まれたことがありました。この時の状況がまさにこれです。
   
緊張への対処法を知らなかった当時。
緊張を解こうと、お酒を飲み、スピーチ直前にトイレに行きたくなって非常に困った思い出があります。(^-^;;
   
今だったら、たぶんスピーチの最初にこう言ってしまうと思います。

「すっごく緊張して心臓がバクバクいってます」

私の場合は、この一言が効くようです。

皆さんの場合はいかがだったでしょうか?

 - その他のスキル