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クローズド・クエスチョンとオープン・クエスチョン | ひろみのみ

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クローズド・クエスチョンとオープン・クエスチョン~質問スキル1

      2016/04/29

質問01
コーチングスキルの1つでもある「質問」。この質問スキルをご紹介します。

「質問」は、積極的に相手の話を引き出すスキルです。

質問の2つのタイプ

質問は、大きく分けると2つのタイプがあります。
1つが「クローズド・クエスチョン」、もう1つが「オープン・クエスチョン」とよばれています。

すでに、ご存知の方も多いかもしれませんね。(^-^

クローズド・クエスチョン

クローズド・クエスチョンとは、Yes/Noで、答えることができる質問です。

例えば、こんな質問がクローズド・クエスチョンです。

  • 今朝は、朝食を食べましたか?
  • 今日は、外出する予定がありますか?

このように、Yes/Noで答えられる質問のことを、クローズド・クエスチョンとよびます。
  

オープン・クエスチョン

オープン・クエスチョンは、Yes/Noでは答えることができない質問です。
5W1Hの質問が、それにあたります。

 When (いつ)
 Who  (どこで)
 Where(誰が)
-----------------------
 What (何を)
 Why  (なぜ)
 How  (どのような)

例えば、このような質もがオープン・クエスチョンです。

  • 今朝、朝食は何を食べましたか?
  • 今日は、どちらに外出するのですか?

このように、Yes/Noでは答えられない質問のことを、オープン・クエスチョンとよんでいます。

クローズド・クエスチョンとオープン・クエスチョンの特徴

クローズド・クエスチョンの特徴

クローズド・クエスチョンは、

  • 頭の整理をする
  • 決断を迫る
  • 確認する場合

このようなときに、効果を発揮します。

その一方、クローズド・クエスチョンを使いすぎると、責められているように受け取られる可能性もあります。

オープン・クエスチョンの特徴

オープン・クエスチョンは、相手に考えさせる質問です。

  • アイデアを出したいとき
  • 相手の考えを知りたいとき

などに、効果的な質問です。

オープン・クエスチョンの中でも、
When/Who/Whereは、比較的、かんたんに答えられる質問であるのに対して
What/Why/Howは、深く考えさせる質問だといえます。

まとめ

クローズド・クエスチョンも、オープン・クエスチョンもどちらが良い、悪いということはありません。

ただ、一般的に、オープン・クエスチョンより、クローズド・クエスチョンの方が答えやすいという特徴があります。

『説得技術のプロフェッショナル』(伊藤明著)の中に、参考になる箇所がありますので要約を載せます。

  『 セールスの教育ではよく、「お客様にオープン・クエスチョンを使いなさ
    い」と言われるが、「これから説得に入ろう」という初期段階ではあまり
    効果を発揮しないテクニックだ。先ず、クローズド・クエスチョンを投げ
    かけて、顧客の考えを具体化して、その後になって初めてオープン・クエ
    スチョンがいきてくる 』

と、書かれています。

※参考図書 

説得技術のプロフェッショナル

先ず、クローズド・クエスチョンを使って頭を整理し、その後で、オープン・クエスチョンを使って考えてもらう。
  
相手の思考がまとまっていない段階では、このようなやり方もあるということをぜひ、覚えていてください。
  

実践!!

次のことを実践してみましょう!!

  1. 周囲の人3~5人を選んで、どちらの質問を使う傾向があるか観察してみましょう。
  2. あなた自身は、どちらの質問を使う傾向があるでしょうか?これから1週間、普段自分が使わないタイプの質問を意識して使ってみましょう。

ここから先は、実践した後に読むとより効果ありです

実践してみての結果はいかがでしたか?

オープン・クエスチョンを使うことが多かったかもしれません。
あるいは、クローズド・クエスチョンを使うことが多かったかもしれません。
それは、コミュニケーションの癖ともいえます。

私の感覚ですが、ビジネスの現場ではクローズド・クエスチョンを耳にすることが多いようです。これは、限られた時間の中で、効率的に業務をこなす必要があるからなのかもしれませんね。

繰り返しになりますが、どちらの質問が良いも悪いもありません。

双方の質問を、時と場合に応じて使い分けることが大切なポイントです。

 - 質問スキル ,