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不眠の種類~4つのタイプ | ひろみのみ

ひろみのみ

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不眠の種類~4つのタイプ

      2016/03/17

不眠

現代はストレス社会と言われています。
また、夜型の生活により 睡眠の問題を抱える人が多くなってきています。

現在の日本では、 5人に1人が睡眠に関する悩みを抱えており、誰もが不眠症に陥る可能性があります。

不眠症の定義

「不眠症」に定義があることを知っていますか?

不眠症とは

  1. 眠れない
  2. 1ヶ月以上続く
  3. 日中の生活に支障がある

これが全て揃うと、『不眠症』と診断されます。

ですので、海外旅行や出張で、時差ボケになって一時的に眠れないのは、不眠症ではありません。

不眠症の4つのタイプ

不眠症は大きく4つのタイプに分かれます。

  • 寝つきが悪い「入眠障害」
  • 眠りが浅く途中で何度も目が覚めてしまう「中途覚醒」
  • 早朝に目が覚めてしまう「早朝覚醒」
  • 眠ってもぐっすり眠れたという満足感を得ることができない「熟眠障害」

そして、不眠症の中でも最も多いのが入眠障害と言われています。入眠障害は入眠困難と呼ばれることもあります。

入眠障害とは

一般的には、入眠までに30分以上かかる場合を入眠障害と呼びます。

人によっては2時間、3時間寝つけなかったり、朝方になってやっと眠りにつける人などもいます。

「夜眠ろうとベッドに入ってもなかなか眠ることができない」
「眠ろうとするとかえって目が覚めて眠れなくなってしまう」

このような、入眠障害が続くことで「また眠れないのではないか」と、不眠に対する恐怖が起こり悪循環に陥りがちです。

一過性と慢性の入眠障害

心配事があったり、ストレスがあったり、旅先であったり、一時的に入眠障害に陥ることがあります。一過性のものであれば、数日から数週間程度で改善されますので心配はありません。

逆に、入眠障害が長く続いてしまう場合があります。
あまりにも長く続くと日常生活に様々な影響が出てきます。

倦怠感、意欲低下、抑うつ、頭痛、めまい、食欲不振など症状は多岐にわたります。

睡眠時無呼吸症候群

Sleep Apnea Syndrome、SASともよばれ、睡眠障害の1つです。

日本だけで500万人くらいの人が、睡眠時無呼吸症候群だと言われています。確かに、私の周りでも、睡眠時に呼吸が止まる人は多いようで、よく話しをききます。

医学的には、
10秒以上の気流停止を無呼吸として、一晩に30回、あるいは、1時間に5回以上あると無呼吸症候群と判断されます。

そして、1時間に何回呼吸が止まるかで重症度が判断され、多い人はなんと1時間に30回以上呼吸がとまります(隣で寝ていたら怖いですね)。

呼吸がとまるだけでなく、私たちの身体に、高血圧、心不全などの悪影響を与える可能性があります。また、強い眠気や、倦怠感を引き起こすこともあり、日常生活に支障をきたすこともあります。

ムズムズ脚症候群

男性より、女性に発症することが多く、正式名称はレストレスレッグズ症候群。

むずむずだけでなく、痛がゆくなったり、ほてったりすることもあるようです。人によっては、虫がはっているような感覚を訴えることもあります。

原因として、脳内の神経伝達物質「ドパミン」の機能障害、鉄欠乏、遺伝的要素などがあります。

不眠症のまとめ

睡眠時無呼吸症候群とムズムズ脚症候群以外にも、不眠症になる原因はあります。

例えば、今の時期であれば「花粉症で眠れない」という人もいます。

また、ぜんそくや痛みなどの身体の症状、ストレス、精神的な病気でも不眠症は起こります。また、シフト制の仕事をしている人も睡眠リズムが崩れやすくなります。

最近は、不眠専門の外来がある病院もありますし、
神経科や心療内科で診察を受けることもできます。

どうしても改善されない場合、気になる症状がある場合などは自己判断をせず、専門医に相談をしてみましょう。

 - 不眠